ECON 220 Syllabus
Fall 2011, Prof. Christiaan Hogendorn

Research Ideas Spreadsheet
Course policies webpage           CiteULike sources

HH = Henry Hansmann, The Ownership of Enterprise, Harvard University Press, 1996.
Checked readings will be discussed in class
Unchecked readings are extra background.
I. Introduction

1. Introduction
2. The “Tragedy of The Commons”
Goal: think about what motivates people to solve or ignore/deny a commons problem.
Garrett Hardin, “The Tragedy of the Commons,” Science, 162(3859), 1968: 1243-1248.
Joseph Stiglitz and Carl Walsh, Economics, Chapter 14 “Strategic Behavior.”

II. Agriculture and Fisheries

3. English Common Fields
Goal: Understand how common fields worked, why a peasant would want them, why a lord would want them.
Richard Hoffmann, “Medieval Origins of the Common Fields,” Chapter 1 in Parker and Jones, eds., European Peasants and their Markets, Princeton University Press, 1975.
Henry Smith, “Semicommon Property Rights and Scattering in the Open Fields,” Journal of Legal Studies, 29(1), 2000: 131-169.

4. Enclosure
Goal: Understand why the common fields were enclosed, how it was done, who gained, who lost, and why it continues to be a subject of scholarly and even ideological debate.
T. S. Ashton, The Industrial Revolution 1760-1830, Oxford, 1948. Chapter II “The Earlier Forms of Industry.” Read pp. 23-28 and 44-46 carefully, briefly skim the rest.
Donald McCloskey, “The Economics of Enclosure,” Chapter 3 in Parker and Jones, eds., European Peasants and their Markets, Princeton University Press, 1975.
Michael Turner, “English Open Fields and Enclosures: Retardation or Productivity Improvements,” Journal of Economic History, Vol. 46, No. 3 (Sep., 1986), pp. 669-692.

5. Fishing
James Acheson, Lobster Gangs of Maine, Univ. Press of New England, 1988, Chapters 3 & 4.
James Acheson, Lobster Gangs of Maine, Univ. Press of New England, 1988, Chapters 1 & 5.
Elinor Ostrom, (2008). Institutions and the environment. Economic affairs, 28(3):24–31.
Edella Schlager, “Fishers’ Institutional Responses to Common-Pool Resource Dilemmas,” Chapter 11 in Ostrom, Gardner, and Walker, Rules, Games, and Common-Pool Resources, Michigan, 1994.

6. Irrigation
Goal: Understand special problems of a commons built around expensive, long-term capital.
Elinor Ostrom, “Analyzing Long-Enduring, Self-Organized, and Self-Governed CPRs,” Chapter 3 in Governing the Commons, Cambridge University Press, 1990. Concentrate on the Huertas and the Similarities sections.
Shui Yan Tang, “Institutions and Performance in Irrigation Systems,” Chapter 10 in Ostrom, Gardner, and Walker, Rules, Games, and Common-Pool Resources, Michigan, 1994.
Maureen Burke, “The Master Artisan,” [Profile of Elinor Ostrom], Finance and Development, September 2011, Vol. 48, No. 3.

III. Economic Theory of Commons

7. Property Rights and Commons Design
Goal: examine differences between “goods” and “management systems.” Understand different types of property rights: open/closed-ended, paper/possessory, alienable/inalienable.
HH, Chapter 1.
William Landes and Richard Posner, “The Economic Theory of Property,” Chapter 1 in The Economic Structure of Intellectual Property Law, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003.
Elinor Ostrom, Governing the Commons, Cambridge University Press, 1990.
8. Ownership and Incentives
Goal: discuss Hansman’s list of costs of contracting to solve commons problems.
HH, read Chapter 2, skim Chapter 3.
Dan Ariely, “How to Pay People,” Business Week, September 22, 2011. The shortest, clearest explanation of incomplete contracts you’ll every read!
Downtown Hartford Getting Upscale Grocery Store
The Market at Hartford 21
Hartford Connecticut Apartments - Home - Hartford 21 Apartments
The Market at Hartford 21 Grocery Store Closes Temporarily As Owners Rework Plan
9. The "Normal" Investor-Owned Firm
Goal: Discuss the terms “asset” and “asset specificity” and how they determine firm structure.
HH, Chapter 4.
Oliver Hart,“The Property Rights Approach,” Chapter 2 in Firms, Contracts, and Financial Structure, Oxford 1995, pp. 29-55.
Apple SEC Filings.
10. Shared Infrastructure
HH, Chapter 8, “Retail, Wholesale, and Supply Firms.”
IV. Software and Communications

11. Software Platforms
Goal: Understand the externalities and management techniques of a two-sided platform.
David S. Evans, Andrei Hagiu and Richard Schmalensee, “Both Sides Now,” Chapter 3 in Invisible Engines, MIT Press, 2006, concentrate on pp. 53-70.
David S. Evans, Andrei Hagiu and Richard Schmalensee, “Speaking in Code,” Chapter 2 in Invisible Engines, MIT Press, 2006.

12. Open Source
Goal: Understand peer production techniques and problems.
Yochai Benkler, “Peer Production and Sharing,” Chapter 3 in The Wealth of Networks, Yale University Press, 2006.
Alexander Furnas '11, “The Networked Production of Information Goods,” Chapter 2 in e-Pluribus Unum: Direct Democracy through Peer Production, CSS Honors Thesis, Wesleyan, April 2011. Focus on pp. 62-103.
Yochai Benkler, Chapters 2 and 4 in The Wealth of Networks, Yale University Press, 2006.
Josh Lerner and Jean Tirole, “Some Simple Economics of Open Source,” Journal of Industrial Economics, 50(2), 2002: 197-234.

13. Social Networks
Ellison, N., Steinfield, C., and Lampe, C. (2007). “The benefits of facebook ‘friends:’ social capital and college students’ use of online social network sites.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication.
Social Lumascape
14. Business Ecosystems
Goal: understand the dilemma of a platform that wants to foster, not intimidate, components and yet still innovate and lead the platform.
Gawer A. and Henderson R. (2007) “Platform Owner Entry and Innovation in Complementary Markets: Evidence from Intel,” Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Vol. 16, No. 1.  Focus on pp. 1–4 (incl. first para under section 2) and pp. 9–18.
James Grimmelmann, “Owning the stack: The legal war to control the smartphone platform,” Ars Technica, September 2011.
Kevin Boudreau and Andrei Hagiu, “Platform Rules: Multi-Sided Platforms as Regulators,” working paper, 2008.
Gawer A. and Cusumano M.A. (2002) Platform Leadership: How Intel, Microsoft, And Cisco Drive Industry Innovation, Harvard Business School Press, Boston.
helpful slide

15. Spectrum
Patrick S. Ryan, “Treating the Wireless Spectrum as a Natural Resource,” Environmental Law Reporter, Vol. 35, p. 10620, September 2005. Focus on Sections III, IV, and V.
Jonathan Nuechterlein and Philip Weiser, Digital Crossroads, Chapters 7 and 8.
Iljitsch van Beijnum and Jaume Barcelo, "Cutting the cord: how the world's engineers built Wi-Fi," Ars Technica, October 10, 2011.
Matthew Lasar, "White Space database system to face its first trial," Ars Technica, September 15, 2011
Middletown, CT Spectrum Licenses, from FCC.
Inside the Radio Wave Spectrum (this link is not the original source -- if you know the original source, please e-mail me)
17. Research Joint Ventures and Spillovers
Lars-Hendrik Roller, Ralph Siebert and Mihkel M. Tombak, “Why Firms Form (or do not Form) RJVs,” The Economic Journal, 117: 1122-1144.
Brett Frischmann and Mark Lemley “Spillovers,” Columbia Law Review, 100(2), 2006.
Wesley M. Cohen and Daniel A. Levinthal, “Innovation and Learning: The Two Faces of R & D,”  Economic Journal, Vol. 99, No. 397 (Sep., 1989), pp. 569-596
Dermot Leahy, J. Peter Neary, “Absorptive capacity, R&D spillovers, and public policy,” International Journal of Industrial Organization, Volume 25, Issue 5, , October 2007, Pages 1089-1108.
16. Network Neutrality and Openness, “An Introduction to Net Neutrality: What It Is, What It Means for You, and What You Can Do About It.”
Timothy B. Lee, "How I learned to stop worrying and love the App Store," Ars Technica, October 17, 2011.
Christiaan Hogendorn, “Broadband Internet: Net Neutrality versus Open Access,” International Economics and Economic Policy, 4(2), 2007: 185-208.
Rob Frieden, “A Primer on Network Neutrality,” Intereconomics, 43(1), 2008.
V. Knowledge and News

18. Ideas and Artifacts
Charlotte Hess and Elinor Ostrom, “Ideas, Artifacts, and Facilities: Information as a Common-Pool Resource,” Law and Contemporary Problems, 66, 2003: 111-145.
Lev Grossman, "From Scroll to Screen," New York Times, September 2, 2011.
The Economist, "The crucible of print: Britain’s embattled newspapers are leading the world in innovation," Jan 6th 2011.
Charlotte Hess and Elinor Ostrom, eds., Understanding Knowledge as a Commons, MIT Press, 2007.
19. News and Media
Diane Brady, "Time Warner and the War Against Free," Business Week, January 20, 2011.
Jonathan A. Knee, "Why Content Isn’t King," The Atlantic, July/August 2011.

VI. Cities, Rural Areas, and Infrastructure
20. Rural Infrastructure
HH, Chapter 7 “Agricultural and Producer Cooperatives.”
Daniel Suits, “Agriculture,” Chapter 1 in Walter Adams and James Brock, The Structure of American Industry, Pearson, 2005.

21. Large-Scale Infrastructure
HH, Chapter 9 “Utilities.”
Brett Frischmann, "An Economic Theory of Infrastructure and Commons Management," Minnesota Law Review, 89 April 2005.
22. Housing Commons
HH, Chapter 11 “Housing.”
Robert Nelson, “The Rise of Sublocal Governance,” Mercatus Center Working paper 09-45, 2009.
23. Cities and Spillovers
Papers due via e-mailed pdf file by 11:59:59pm.
Edward Glaeser, Triumph of the City, Chapters 1 and 2, focus on pp. 29–52 and 61–63.
Gerald Carlino, “Three Keys to the City: Resources, Agglomeration Economies, and Sorting,” Business Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, 2011.
Timothy Bresnahan and Alfonso Gambardella, “Old Economy Inputs for New-Economy Outcomes: What Have We Learned?,” Chapter 10 in Building High Tech Clusters, Cambridge, 2004.
Glenn Ellison, Edward Glaeser and William Kerr, “What Causes Industry Agglomeration? Evidence from Coagglomeration Patterns,” working paper, 2008.

VII. Group Presentations
24. Groups 1 and 2
1. Environment (Codman,John; Buffie,Nicholas; Morita,Catherine; Pesola,Victor)
2. Food Co-ops (Park,Eun Kyo; Reiman,Kayla; Yoo,Ga Eun; Kremer,Rina; Lichtash,Matthew)

25. Groups 3, 3a, and 4
3. Sports (Callori,Matthew; St. Jean,Gregory; Tugman,Christopher; Guay, John;
Russell, George)
3a. Wes Meal Points (Schragis,William)
4. Water:(Cooper,Brandyn; Skinner,Jacob; Tristani,William; Waldron,Ian; Snyder,John)

26. Groups 5 and 6
5. Infrastructures (Lee,Kelly; Ng,Alex; Yoshida,Michael;Plapinger,Samuel; Dennett,Jonathan Ross)
6. Technology (Liu,Leonid; Frank,Peter; Sarney,Reed; Docter,Benjamin; Davis,Benjamin; Pack,Alexander; Pinkham,Michael)